Gisbuer | Life Science Hub

We’re just like you. We worry our loved one aren’t getting enough of the essential nutrients they need to grow up or stay healthy and strong. Plus, we want easy ways to incorporate more nutrition into our daily diets. That’s why all our products start with a personal need and a strong belief that supplementation with functional ingredients found in nature can have a powerful impact on our health and overall wellness.

We take our grand ideas to our experienced team of nutrition and holistic technical experts. They’re good! They start to dig deep into the science of nutrition and healing. First, they uncover the latest clinical research on nutritional actives that address the desired health benefit. Second, they ensure the formula includes the right form and dose of nutrients.

All our ingredients live in two places: inside Gisbuer and right on the label. We believe in full transparency, so you know what you’re getting every time you buy and take Gisbuer product. There’s nothing in our products you can’t pronounce or don’t recognize. We only partner with suppliers who can meet our stringent requirements for transparency, traceability, and documentation.

Gisbuer | New Zealand Organic Dairy Milk

For centuries, New Zealand dairy farmers have produced exceptionally fine milk, earning a well-established reputation for quality. From a largely untouched, unique environment with unpolluted air, precious clean water, rays of healing sunshine and fertile volcanic soils that produce an amazing abundance of nutritious green grass, happy cows can roam and graze freely on these luscious pastures, producing premium organic milk.

Gisbuer | Lactoferrin

Lactoferrin is a protein naturally occurring in milk and other human secretions (saliva, tears, etc.). This glycoprotein has a high iron-binding capacity and provides multiple benefits such as immune and gut health. Lactoferrin has been proven to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Premium grade lactoferrin is directly produced from fresh milk through cutting-edge technology, which allows the preservation of the native structure of lactoferrin as found in fresh milk, offering the guarantee of a non-denatured product with the highest purity on the market.

  • Demmelmair, H., Prell, C., Timby, N., & Lönnerdal, B. (2017). Benefits of lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membranes for infants. Nutrients, 9(8), 817.

Gisbuer | Milk Fat Globule Membranes (MFGM)

MFGM is a naturally occurring bioactive membrane that surround the fat droplets in breast milk. Research has shown that MFGM plays an important role in brain structure and function. Understanding the role of MFGM in brain development is the result of decades of research, and multiple clinical studies on MFGM and its components.

  • Hernell, O., Timby, N., Domellöf, M., & Lönnerdal, B. (2016). Clinical benefits of milk fat globule membranes for infants and children. The Journal of pediatrics, 173, S60-S65.
  • Timby, N., Domellöf, M., Lönnerdal, B., & Hernell, O. (2017). Supplementation of infant formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes. Advances in Nutrition, 8(2), 351-355.
  • Timby, N., Domellöf, E., Hernell, O., Lönnerdal, B., & Domellöf, M. (2014). Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(4), 860-868.
  • Billeaud, C., Puccio, G., Saliba, E., Guillois, B., Vaysse, C., Pecquet, S., & Steenhout, P. (2014). Safety and tolerance evaluation of milk fat globule membrane-enriched infant formulas: a randomized controlled multicenter non-inferiority trial in healthy term infants. Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics, 8, CMPed-S16962.
  • Gallier, Sophie & MacGibbon, A.K. & Mcjarrow, Paul. (2018). Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) supplementation and cognition. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech. 29(5). 14-16.

Gisbuer | Sialic Acid

Sialic acid is found throughout the human body naturally and has numerous biological functions. Sialic acid exists predominantly in the brain and central nervous system as sialylated glycolipids (gangliosides).

  • Röhrig, C. H., Choi, S. S., & Baldwin, N. (2017). The nutritional role of free sialic acid, a human milk monosaccharide, and its application as a functional food ingredient. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 57(5), 1017-1038.
  • Wang, B., Brand-Miller, J., McVeagh, P., & Petocz, P. (2001). Concentration and distribution of sialic acid in human milk and infant formulas. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 74(4), 510-515.
  • Wang, B., & Brand-Miller, J. (2003). The role and potential of sialic acid in human nutrition. European journal of clinical nutrition, 57(11), 1351-1369.
  • Wang, B., McVeagh, P., Petocz, P., & Brand-Miller, J. (2003). Brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 78(5), 1024-1029.

Gisbuer | Essential Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are considered essential nutrients—because acting in concert, they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help shore up bones, heal wounds, and bolster your immune system. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage.

  • Leaf, A. A. (2007). Vitamins for babies and young children. Archives of disease in childhood, 92(2), 160-164.

Gisbuer | Algae DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (PUFA) found throughout the body. It is a major structural fat found in the brain and eye accounting for up to 97% of the total omega-3 fats in the brain and up to 93% of the omega-3 fats in a specific part of the eye, called the retina. It is also a key component of the heart. Numerous research studies confirm that everyone, from infants to adults to the elderly, can benefit from a regular intake of dietary DHA. Most people know that fish are a rich source of DHA, but what they don’t know is that fish get DHA from the algae they eat in their food chain. Algae DHA goes straight to the source, producing DHA from the same microalgae sources fish get it from.

  • Richard, C., Lewis, E. D., & Field, C. J. (2016). Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant’s immune system early in life. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(5), 461-475.
  • Birch, E. E., Carlson, S. E., Hoffman, D. R., Fitzgerald-Gustafson, K. M., Fu, V. L., Drover, J. R., … & Marunycz, J. (2010). The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 91(4), 848-859.
  • Kaur, G., Cameron-Smith, D., Garg, M., & Sinclair, A. J. (2011). Docosapentaenoic acid (22: 5n-3): a review of its biological effects. Progress in lipid research, 50(1), 28-34.
  • Drover, J. R., Hoffman, D. R., Castañeda, Y. S., Morale, S. E., Garfield, S., Wheaton, D. H., & Birch, E. E. (2011). Cognitive function in 18-month-old term infants of the DIAMOND study: a randomized, controlled clinical trial with multiple dietary levels of docosahexaenoic acid. Early human development, 87(3), 223-230.
  • Yeiser, M., Harris, C. L., Kirchoff, A. L., Patterson, A. C., Wampler, J. L., Zissman, E. N., & Berseth, C. L. (2016). Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula with a new algal source of docosahexaenoic acid: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 115, 89-96.
  • Fedorova-Dahms, I., Marone, P. A., Bauter, M., & Ryan, A. S. (2011). Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. Food and chemical toxicology, 49(12), 3310-3318.
  • The Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China, National food safety standard: infant formula, GB 10765 (2010).
  • Morse, N. L. (2012). Benefits of docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, vitamin D and iodine on foetal and infant brain development and function following maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrients, 4(7), 799-840.

Gisbuer | Lactase

Lactose intolerance is a common condition in which your body finds it difficult to digest lactose, a sugar found in cows’, goats’ and sheep milk. Lactose intolerance occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose in your gut. Lactase enzyme may assist in reducing signs of lactose intolerance by digesting lactose found in dairy products and breast milk.

  • Kanabar, D., Randhawa, M., & Clayton, P. (2001). Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 14(5), 359-363.
  • Erasmus, H. D., Ludwig-Auser, H. M., Paterson, P. G., Sun, D., & Sankaran, K. (2002). Enhanced weight gain in preterm infants receiving lactase-treated feeds: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The Journal of pediatrics, 141(4), 532-537.

Gisbuer | Probiotics HN001 & HN019

Probiotic literally means ‘for life’. Probiotics are living micro-organisms that, when ingested or applied locally in sufficient numbers, benefit the health of the consumer. Once in our intestines, these natural and friendly bacteria help balance our gut microflora and support our immune system. DuPont probiotics has over 40 years of experience in probiotic manufacturing and have more than 70 clinical studies based on DuPont probiotic strains.

  • Wickens, K., Stanley, T. V., Mitchell, E. A., Barthow, C., Fitzharris, P., Purdie, G., … & Crane, J. (2013). Early supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN 001 reduces eczema prevalence to 6 years: does it also reduce atopic sensitization?. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 43(9), 1048-1057.
  • Toscano, M., De Grandi, R., Stronati, L., De Vecchi, E., & Drago, L. (2017). Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the healthy gut microbiota composition at phyla and species level: A preliminary study. World journal of gastroenterology, 23(15), 2696.
  • Shu, Q., & Gill, H. S. (2002). Immune protection mediated by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20™) against Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in mice. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 34(1), 59-64.
  • Gill, H. S., Rutherfurd, K. J., Cross, M. L., & Gopal, P. K. (2001). Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 74(6), 833-839.
  • Ibarra, A., Latreille-Barbier, M., Donazzolo, Y., Pelletier, X., & Ouwehand, A. C. (2018). Effects of 28-day Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 supplementation on colonic transit time and gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with functional constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and dose-ranging trial. Gut microbes, 9(3), 236-251.
  • Sanders, M. E. (2006). Summary of probiotic activities of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 40(9), 776-783.
  • Ahmed, M., Prasad, J., Gill, H., Stevenson, L., & Gopal, P. (2007). Impact of consumption of different levels of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the intestinal microflora of elderly human subjects. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 11(1), 26.
  • Leyer, G. J., Li, S., Mubasher, M. E., Reifer, C., & Ouwehand, A. C. (2009). Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics, 124(2), e172-e179.

Gisbuer | Colostrum Basic Protein (CBP)

Colostrum Basic Protein(CBP) is a unique dairy powder fraction scientifically proven to increase bone density, weight and length. Our bones are constantly being reshaped by bone building osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclast. CBP increases the proliferation of osteoblasts, tipping the balance in favour of building bones.

  • Zou, Z. Y., Lin, X. M., Xu, X. R., Xu, R., Ma, L., Li, Y., & Wang, M. F. (2009). Evaluation of milk basic protein supplementation on bone density and bone metabolism in Chinese young women. European journal of nutrition, 48(5), 301-306.
  • Lee, J. R., Kim, H. M., Choi, H. S., & Hong, J. H. (2007). Effects of Colostrum Basic Protein from Colostrum Whey Protein: Increases in Osteoblast Proliferation and Bone Metabolism. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 12(1), 1-6.
  • Caroli, A., Poli, A., Ricotta, D., Banfi, G., & Cocchi, D. (2011). Invited review: dairy intake and bone health: a viewpoint from the state of the art. Journal of dairy science, 94(11), 5249-5262.
  • SILVA, E. G. D. S. O., RANGEL, A. H. D. N., MÜRMAM, L., Bezerra, M. F., & OLIVEIRA, J. P. F. D. (2019). Bovine colostrum: benefits of its use in human food. Food Science and Technology, 39, 355-362.
  • AOE, S., Toba, Y., Yamamura, J. I., Kawakami, H., Yahiro, M., Kumegawa, M., … & Takada, Y. (2001). Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 65(4), 913-918.
  • Uenishi, K., Ishida, H., Toba, Y., Aoe, S., Itabashi, A., & Takada, Y. (2007). Milk basic protein increases bone mineral density and improves bone metabolism in healthy young women. Osteoporosis international, 18(3), 385-390.

Gisbuer | Lutein

Lutein is an important carotenoid and a powerful antioxidant that defends the body against unstable molecules called free radicals. Lutein works to protect the eyes from free radical damage. As the eyes require a lot of oxygen, this in turn promotes the production of harmful oxygen free radicals. Lutein cancels out these free radicals, so they can no longer damage the cells of the eye. Lutein (and the antioxidant zeaxanthin) are the only dietary carotenoids that accumulate in the retina, particularly the macula region, which is located at the back of your eye and is essential for vision.

  • Granado, F., Olmedilla, B., & Blanco, I. (2003). Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health. British Journal of Nutrition, 90(3), 487-502.
  • Bendich, A. D. R. I. A. N. N. E., & Olson, J. A. (1989). Biological actions of carotenoids. The FASEB journal, 3(8), 1927-1932.
  • Bernstein, P. S., Khachik, F., Carvalho, L. S., Muir, G. J., Zhao, D. Y., & Katz, N. B. (2001). Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye. Experimental eye research, 72(3), 215-223.
  • Johnson, E. J., Maras, J. E., Rasmussen, H. M., & Tucker, K. L. (2010). Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. Journal of the American dietetic association, 110(9), 1357-1362.
  • Barnett, S. M., Khan, N. A., Walk, A. M., Raine, L. B., Moulton, C., Cohen, N. J., … & Hillman, C. H. (2018). Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children. Nutritional neuroscience, 21(9), 632-640.
  • Gorin, M. B., Chew, E., & Clemons, E. (2017). Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C, E, Beta-Carotene and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration. AREDS Report No. 35.
  • AREDS Research Group. (2013). Lutein+ zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Jama, 309(19), 2005-2015.
  • AREDS2 Research Group. (2013). Lutein/Zeaxanthin for the Treatment of Age-Related Cataract. JAMA Ophthalmology, published online May, 5.

Gisbuer | Collagen & Elastin Peptides

Collagen is found in dermis of the skin as the main component. Together with Elastin, it helps to maintain the skin’s firmness and elasticity. When collagen in skin is depleted, it loses its firmness which leads saggy and wrinkled skin. Elastin makes bundles of collagen. Collagen and Elastin connect strongly and support skin, keeping it firm and elastic.

  • Kim, D. U., Chung, H. C., Choi, J., Sakai, Y., & Lee, B. Y. (2018). Oral intake of low-molecular-weight collagen peptide improves hydration, elasticity, and wrinkling in human skin: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients, 10(7), 826.
  • De Luca, C., Mikhal’chik, E. V., Suprun, M. V., Papacharalambous, M., Truhanov, A. I., & Korkina, L. G. (2016). Skin antiageing and systemic redox effects of supplementation with marine collagen peptides and plant-derived antioxidants: A single-blind case-control clinical study. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2016.
  • Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 27(1), 47-55.
  • Proksch, E., Schunck, M., Zague, V., Segger, D., Degwert, J., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 27(3), 113-119.
  • Schunck, M., Zague, V., Oesser, S., & Proksch, E. (2015). Dietary supplementation with specific collagen peptides has a body mass index-dependent beneficial effect on cellulite morphology. Journal of medicinal food, 18(12), 1340-1348.
  • Hexsel, D., Zague, V., Schunck, M., Siega, C., Camozzato, F. O., & Oesser, S. (2017). Oral supplementation with specific bioactive collagen peptides improves nail growth and reduces symptoms of brittle nails. Journal of cosmetic dermatology, 16(4), 520-526.
  • Chong, C., Wang, Y., Fathi, A., Parungao, R., Maitz, P. K., & Li, Z. (2019). Skin wound repair: Results of a pre-clinical study to evaluate electropsun collagen–elastin–PCL scaffolds as dermal substitutes. Burns, 45(7), 1639-1648.
  • Gorouhi, F., & Maibach, H. I. (2009). Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin. International journal of cosmetic science, 31(5), 327-345.
  • Lupo, M. P. (2008). Peptides for facial skin aging. In Simplified Facial Rejuvenation (pp. 79-81). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Gisbuer | Acerola Fruit

Unlike artificial and synthetic made Vitamin C, Acerola Fruit, is a natural, plant-based source of vitamin C. Acerola fruit provides a rich source of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a remarkably versatile nutrient. It plays an important role in a wide range of different systems and processes throughout your body, particularly in supporting healthy immune system.

  • Clein, N. W. (1956). Acerola juice—The richest known source of Vitamin C: A clinical study in infants. The Journal of pediatrics, 48(2), 140-145.
  • Belwal, T., Devkota, H. P., Hassan, H. A., Ahluwalia, S., Ramadan, M. F., Mocan, A., & Atanasov, A. G. (2018). Phytopharmacology of Acerola (Malpighia spp.) and its potential as functional food. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 74, 99-106.
  • da Silva Nunes, R., Kahl, V. F. S., da Silva Sarmento, M., Richter, M. F., Costa-Lotufo, L. V., Rodrigues, F. A. R., … & da Silva, J. (2011). Antigenotoxicity and antioxidant activity of acerola fruit (Malpighia glabra L.) at two stages of ripeness. Plant foods for human nutrition, 66(2), 129-135.
  • Uchida, E., Kondo, Y., Amano, A., Aizawa, S., Hanamura, T., Aoki, H., … & Ishigami, A. (2011). Absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid alone and in acerola (Malpighia emarginata) juice: comparison in healthy Japanese subjects. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 34(11), 1744-1747.
  • Moscoso, C. G. (1956). West indian cherry—richest known source of natural vitamin C. Economic Botany, 10(3), 280-294.

Gisbuer | Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine is a fatty substance produced in the body that covers and protects every cell in the body. It’s particularly vital for the proper functioning of nerve cells within the brain, helping to transmit messages between them. As an essential component of healthy nerve cell membranes, phosphatidylserine is thought to have a key role in keeping your memory sharp as you get older. Studies in animals suggest that levels decline with age

  • Jorissen, B. L., Brouns, F. J. P. H., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Verhey, F. R. J., Jolles, J., & Riedel, W. J. (2001). The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutritional neuroscience, 4(2), 121-134.
  • Allegro, L., Favaretto, V., & Ziliotto, G. (1987). ORAL PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COGNITIVE DETERIORATION-AN OPEN STUDY. Clinical Trials Journal, 24(1), 104-108.
  • Borghese, C. M., & Rami, O. A. (1993). Phosphatidylserine increases hippocampal synaptic efficacy. Brain research bulletin, 31(6), 697-700.
  • Crook, T. H. (1998). Treatment of age-related cognitive decline: effects of phosphatidylserine. Anti-aging medical therapeutics, 2, 20-29.
  • Kidd, P. M. (1996). Phosphatidylserine; membrane nutrient for memory. a clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev, 1(2), 70-84.
  • Kim, H. Y., Huang, B. X., & Spector, A. A. (2014). Phosphatidylserine in the brain: metabolism and function. Progress in lipid research, 56, 1-18.
  • Vakhapova, V., Cohen, T., Richter, Y., Herzog, Y., & Korczyn, A. D. (2010). Phosphatidylserine containing ω–3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 29(5), 467-474.
  • Jorissen, B. L., Brouns, F. J. P. H., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Verhey, F. R. J., Jolles, J., & Riedel, W. J. (2001). The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutritional neuroscience, 4(2), 121-134.

Gisbuer | Curcumin

Curcumin is a yellow powder extracted from the tubers of the plant turmeric (Curcumalonga). Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal actions. Studies have shown that curcumin is not toxic to humans. Curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of several different molecules that play an important role in inflammation.

  • Jurenka, J. S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative medicine review, 14(2).
  • Chainani-Wu, N. (2003). Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 9(1), 161-168.
  • Akram, M., Shahab-Uddin, A. A., Usmanghani, K. H. A. N., Hannan, A. B. D. U. L., Mohiuddin, E., & Asif, M. (2010). Curcuma longa and curcumin: a review article. Rom J Biol Plant Biol, 55(2), 65-70.
  • Liju, V. B., Jeena, K., & Kuttan, R. (2011). An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43(5), 526.
  • Hewlings, S. J., & Kalman, D. S. (2017). Curcumin: a review of its’ effects on human health. Foods, 6(10), 92.
  • Labban, L. (2014). Medicinal and pharmacological properties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A review. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci, 5(1), 17-23.
  • Chin, K. Y. (2016). The spice for joint inflammation: anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in treating osteoarthritis. Drug design, development and therapy, 10, 3029.

Gisbuer | Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is part of the carotenoid family, an organic pigment found in algae (Haematococcus Pluvialis), bacteria and plants. Carotenoids are what gives flowers, fruits and vegetables their vibrant colors. Carotenoids act as a natural antioxidant for the body and of the 700 antioxidants discovered so far, astaxanthin has proven to be the most powerful.

  • Yuan, J. P., Peng, J., Yin, K., & Wang, J. H. (2011). Potential health‐promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high‐value carotenoid mostly from microalgae. Molecular nutrition & food research, 55(1), 150-165.
  • Hu, C., Cui, D., Sun, X., Shi, J., & Xu, N. (2020). Primary metabolism is associated with the astaxanthin biosynthesis in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis under light stress. Algal Research, 46, 101768.
  • Fakhri, S., Abbaszadeh, F., Dargahi, L., & Jorjani, M. (2018). Astaxanthin: A mechanistic review on its biological activities and health benefits. Pharmacological research, 136, 1-20.
  • Kidd, P. (2011). Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev, 16(4), 355-64.
  • Naguib, Y. M. (2000). Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related carotenoids. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 48(4), 1150-1154.
  • Otsuka, T., Shimazawa, M., Nakanishi, T., Ohno, Y., Inoue, Y., Tsuruma, K., … & Hara, H. (2013). The protective effects of a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin, against light-induced retinal damage. Journal of pharmacological sciences, 13066FP.
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